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  • IF =1.193

  • ISSN 1009-0630

  • e-ISSN 2058-6272

  • CN 34-1187/TL

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Measurement of cytoplasmic Ca2+ concentration in Saccharomyces cerevisiae induced by air cold plasma
Xiaoyu DONG (董晓宇)
Plasma Sci. Technol.    2018, 20(4): 044001; doi: 10.1088/2058-6272/aa9479
Abstract128)      PDF (981KB)(401)      

In this study, a novel approach to measure the absolute cytoplasmic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]cyt) using the Ca2+ indicator fluo-3 AM was established. The parameters associated with the probe fluo-3 AM were optimized to accurately determine fluorescence intensity from the Ca2+-bound probe. Using three optimized parameters (final concentration of 6 mM probe, incubation time of 135 min, loading probe before plasma treatment), the maximum fluorescence intensity (Fmax=527.8 a.u.) and the minimum fluorescence intensity (Fmin=63.8 a.u.) were obtained in a saturated Ca2+ solution or a solution of lacking Ca2+. Correspondingly, the maximum [Ca2+]cyt induced by cold plasma was 1232.5 nM. Therefore, the Ca2+ indicator fluo-3 AM was successfully applied to measure the absolute [Ca2+]cyt in Saccharomyces cerevisiae stimulated by cold plasma at atmospheric air pressure.

Plasma electrolytic liquefaction of cellulosic biomass
Dingliang TANG (汤丁亮)1, Xianhui ZHANG (张先徽)2 and Si-ze YANG (杨思泽)2
Plasma Sci. Technol.    2018, 20(4): 044002; doi: 10.1088/2058-6272/aa9563
Abstract122)      PDF (1997KB)(362)      

In this paper, the rapid liquefaction of a corncob was achieved by plasma electrolysis, providing a new method for cellulosic biomass liquefaction. The liquefaction rate of the corncob was 95% after 5 min with polyethylene glycol and glycerol as the liquefying agent. The experiments not only showed that H+ ions catalyzed the liquefaction of the corncob, but also that using accelerated H+ ions, which were accelerated by an electric field, could effectively improve the liquefaction efficiency. There was an obvious discharge phenomenon, in which the generated radicals efficiently heated the solution and liquefied the biomass, in the process of plasma electrolytic liquefaction. Finally, the optimum parameters of the corncob liquefaction were obtained by experimentation, and the liquefaction products were analyzed.

Systemic study on the safety of immuno-deficient nude mice treated by atmospheric plasma-activated water
Dehui XU (许德晖)1,2,5,6, Qingjie CUI (崔庆杰)2,5, Yujing XU (许宇静)1, et al.
Plasma Sci. Technol.    2018, 20(4): 044003; doi: 10.1088/2058-6272/aa9842
Abstract146)      PDF (1155KB)(388)      

Cold atmospheric-pressure plasma is a new technology, widely used in many fields of biomedicine, especially in cancer treatment. Cold plasma can selectively kill a variety of tumor cells, and its biological safety in clinical trials is also very important. In many cases, the patient’s immune level is relatively low, so we first studied the safety assessment of plasma treatment in an immunocompromised animal model. In this study, we examined the safety of immuno-deficient nude mice by oral lavage treatment of plasma-activated water, and studied the growth status, main organs and blood biochemical indexes. Acute toxicity test results showed that the maximum dose of plasma treatment for 15 min had no lethal effect and other acute toxicity. There were no significant changes in body weight and survival status of mice after 2 min and 4 min of plasma-activated water (PAW) treatment for 2 weeks. After treatment, the major organs, including heart, liver, spleen, lung and kidney, were not significantly changed in organ coefficient and tissue structure. Blood biochemical markers showed that blood neutrophils and mononuclear cells were slightly increased, and the others remained unchanged. Liver function, renal function, electrolytes, glucose metabolism and lipid metabolism were not affected by different doses of PAW treatment. The above results indicate that PAWtreatment canbeusedtotreat immuno-deficient nude mice without significant safety problems.

Effect of low-temperature plasma on the degradation of omethoate residue and quality of apple and spinach
Xingmin SHI (石兴民)1, Jinren LIU (刘进仁)1, Guimin XU (许桂敏)2, et al.
Plasma Sci. Technol.    2018, 20(4): 044004; doi: 10.1088/2058-6272/aa9b78
Abstract103)      PDF (1383KB)(392)      

Dielectric barrier corona discharge was developed to generate low-temperature plasma (LTP) to treat apple and spinach samples contaminated with omethoate. Experimental results showed that, after 20 min exposure, the degradation rate of omethoate residue in apple and spinach was (94.55 ± 0.01)% and (95.55 ± 0.01)%, respectively. When the treatment time was shorter than 20 min, the contents of moisture, vitamin C and beta-carotene were not affected by LTP. Exploration of related mechanisms suggested that LTP might destroy unsaturated double bonds of omethoate and produce phosphate ion, eventually leading to omethoate destruction. It is concluded that appropriate dosage of LTP can effectively degrade omethoate residue in fruits and vegetables without affecting their quality.

Pulsed cold plasma-induced blood coagulation and its pilot application in stanching bleeding during rat hepatectomy
Keping YAN (闫克平)1, Qikang JIN (金杞糠)1, Chao ZHENG (郑超)2,et al.
Plasma Sci. Technol.    2018, 20(4): 044005; doi: 10.1088/2058-6272/aa9b79
Abstract95)      PDF (2555KB)(434)      

This paper presents plasma-induced blood coagulation and its pilot application in rat hepatectomy by using a home-made pulsed cold plasma jet. Experiments were conducted on blood coagulation in vitro, the influence of plasma on tissue in vivo, and the pilot application of rat hepatectomy. Experimental results show that the cold plasma can lead to rapid blood coagulation. Compared with the control sample, the plasma-induced agglomerated layer of blood is thicker and denser, and is mostly composed of broken platelets. When the surface of the liver was treated by plasma, the influence of the plasma can penetrate into the liver to a depth of about 500 μm. During the rat hepatectomy, cold plasma was proved to be effective for stanching bleeding on incision. No obvious bleeding was found in the abdominal cavities of all six rats 48 h after the hepatectomy. This implies that cold plasma can be an effective modality to control bleeding during surgical operation.

Interactions between multiple filaments and bacterial biofilms on the surface of an apple
He CHENG (程鹤)1,2, Maoyuan XU (徐茂源)1,2, Shuhui PAN (潘姝慧)1,2, et al.
Plasma Sci. Technol.    2018, 20(4): 044006; doi: 10.1088/2058-6272/aa9d7e
Abstract90)      PDF (3054KB)(323)      

In this paper, the interactions between two dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) filaments and three bacterial biofilms are simulated. The modeling of a DBD streamer is studied by means of 2D finite element calculation. The model is described by the proper governing equations of air DBD at atmospheric pressure and room temperature. The electric field in the computing domain and the self-consistent transportation of reactive species between a cathode and biofilms on the surface of an apple are realized by solving a Poisson equation and continuity equations. The electron temperature is solved by the electron energy conservation equation. The conductivity and permittivity of bacterial biofilms are considered, and the shapes of the bacterial biofilms are irregular in the uncertainty and randomness of colony growth. The distribution of the electrons suggests that two plasma channels divide into three plasma channels when the streamer are 1 mm from the biofilms. The toe-shapes of the biofilms and the simultaneous effect of two streamer heads result in a high electric field around the biofilms, therefore the stronger ionization facilitates the major part of two streamers combined into one streamer and three streamers arise. The distribution of the reactive oxygen species and the reactive nitrogen species captured by time fluences are non-uniform due to the toe-shaped bacterial biofilms. However, the plasma can intrude into the cavities in the adjacent biofilms due to the μm-scale mean free path. The two streamers case has a larger treatment area and realizes the simultaneous treatment of three biofilms compared with one streamer case.

Effect of cold plasma treatment on seedling growth and nutrient absorption of tomato
Jiafeng JIANG (蒋佳峰)1,2, Jiangang LI (李建刚)2 and Yuanhua DONG (董元华)2
Plasma Sci. Technol.    2018, 20(4): 044007; doi: 10.1088/2058-6272/aaa0bf
Abstract82)      PDF (375KB)(381)      

The effects of cold plasma (CP) treatment on seed germination, seedling growth, root morphology, and nutrient uptake of a tomato were investigated. The results showed that 80 W of CP treatment significantly increased tomato nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) absorption by 12.7% and 19.1%, respectively. CP treatment significantly improved the germination potential of tomato seed by 11.1% and the germination rate by 13.8%. Seedling growth characteristics, including total dry weight, root dry weight, root shoot rate, and leaf area, significantly increased after 80 W of CP treatment. Root activity was increased by 15.7% with 80 W of CP treatment, and 12.6% with 100 W of CP treatment. CP treatment (80 W) markedly ameliorated tomato root morphology, and root length, surface area, and volume, which increased 21.3%, 23.6%, and 29.0%, respectively. Our results suggested that CP treatment improved tomato N and P absorption by promoting the accumulation of shoot and root biomass, increasing the leaf area and root activity, and improving the length, surface area, and volume of root growth. Thus, CP treatment could be used in an ameliorative way to improve tomato nutrient absorption.

Influence of pulsed electric field on enzymes, bacteria and volatile flavor compounds of unpasteurized sake
Takamasa OKUMURA1, Taro YAEGASHI2, Takahiro FUJIWARA2, et al.
Plasma Sci. Technol.    2018, 20(4): 044008; doi: 10.1088/2058-6272/aaa400
Abstract91)      PDF (851KB)(325)      

A pulsed electric field (PEF) was applied to unpasteurized sake at constant temperatures, at which α-amylase was not inactivated. We adjusted the input energy to be identical for the temperatures by changing the number of PEF application, because the current significantly increased with the temperature, even the amplitude of the applied voltage was identical. As a result, the α-amylase was seemed to be inactivated by PEF application, not due to thermal effect. The glucoamylase was significantly inactivated by PEF. Moreover, the acid carboxypeptidase was inactivated by PEF at 4 °C but significantly activated at 25 °C. These results show that the sensitivity of enzyme to PEF application differs depending on the types of enzyme and treatment temperature. On the other hand, the colony number of bacteria was remarkably decreased, but the amount of the volatile flavor compounds was not decreased by PEF application.

Generation of reactive species in atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge with liquid water
Zelong ZHANG (张泽龙)1, Jie SHEN (沈洁)2,3,5, Cheng CHENG (程诚)2,3, et al.
Plasma Sci. Technol.    2018, 20(4): 044009; doi: 10.1088/2058-6272/aaa437
Abstract94)      PDF (1710KB)(410)      

Atmospheric pressure helium/water dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma is used to investigate the generation of reactive species in a gas–liquid interface and in a liquid. The emission intensity of the reactive species is measured by optical emission spectroscopy (OES) with different discharge powers at the gas–liquid interface. Spectrophotometry is used to analyze the reactive species induced by the plasma in the liquid. The concentration of OH radicals reaches 2.2 μm after 3 min of discharge treatment. In addition, the concentration of primary long-lived reactive species such as H2O2, NO3- and O3 are measured based on plasma treatment time. After 5 min of discharge treatment, the concentration of H2O2, NO3-, and O3 increased from 0 mg· L-1 to 96 mg·L-1, 19.5 mg·L-1, and 3.5 mg·L-1, respectively. The water treated by plasma still contained a considerable concentration of reactive species after 6 h of storage. The results will contribute to optimizing the DBD plasma system for biological decontamination.

Influences of the cold atmospheric plasma jet treatment on the properties of the demineralized dentin surfaces
Xiaoming ZHU (朱晓鸣)1,3, Heng GUO (郭恒)2,3, Jianfeng ZHOU (周建锋)1, et al.
Plasma Sci. Technol.    2018, 20(4): 044010; doi: 10.1088/2058-6272/aaa6be
Abstract83)      PDF (2320KB)(459)      

Improvement of the bonding strength and durability between the dentin surface and the composite resin is a challenging job in dentistry. In this paper, a radio-frequency atmospheric-pressure glow discharge (RF-APGD) plasma jet is employed for the treatment of the acid-etched dentin surfaces used for the composite restoration. The properties of the plasma treated dentin surfaces and the resin–dentin interfaces are analyzed using the x-ray photoemission spectroscopy, contact angle goniometer, scanning electron microscope and microtensile tester. The experimental results show that, due to the abundant chemically reactive species existing in the RF-APGD plasma jet under a stable and low energy input operating mode, the contact angle of the plasma-treated dentin surfaces decreases to a stable level with the increase of the atomic percentage of oxygen in the specimens; the formation of the long resin tags in the scattered clusters and the hybrid layers at the resin–dentin interfaces significantly improve the bonding strength and durability. These results indicate that the RF-APGD plasma jet is an effective tool for modifying the chemical properties of the dentin surfaces, and for improving the immediate bonding strength and the durability of the resin-dentin bonding in dentistry.

Influence of water content on the inactivation of P. digitatum spores using an air–water plasma jet
Youyi HU (胡友谊)1, Weidong ZHU (朱卫东)1,2, Kun LIU (刘坤)1, et al.
Plasma Sci. Technol.    2018, 20(4): 044011; doi: 10.1088/2058-6272/aaa8da
Abstract111)      PDF (1314KB)(342)      

In order to investigate whether an air–water plasma jet is beneficial to improve the efficiency of inactivation, a series of experiments were done using a ring-needle plasma jet. The water content in the working gas (air) was accurately measured based on the Karl Fischer method. The effects of water on the production of OH (A2Σ+ –X2Πi) and O (3p5P–3s5S) were also studied by optical emission spectroscopy. The results show that the water content is in the range of 2.53–9.58 mg l-1, depending on the gas/water mixture ratio. The production of OH (A2Σ+ –X2Πi) rises with the increase of water content, whereas the O (3p5P–3s5S) shows a declining tendency with higher water content. The sterilization experiments indicate that this air– water plasma jet inactivates the P. digitatum spores very effectively and its efficiency rises with the increase of the water content. It is possible that OH (A2Σ+ –X2Πi) is a more effective species in inactivation than O (3p5P–3s5S) and the water content benefit the spore germination inhibition through rising the OH (A2Σ+ –X2Πi) production. The maximum of the inactivation efficacy is up to 93% when the applied voltage is -6.75 kV and the water content is 9.58 mg l-1.

Non-thermal plasma treatment as a new biotechnology in relation to seeds, dry fruits, and grains
Bozena SERA1,2 and Michal SERY3
Plasma Sci. Technol.    2018, 20(4): 044012; doi: 10.1088/2058-6272/aaacc6
Abstract109)      PDF (688KB)(405)      

Non-thermal plasma (NTP) technology offers wide potential use in the food technology, the same as in the unconventional agriculture. Some seeds, dry fruits, grains and their sprouts gain popularity in the culinary industry as ‘raw seeds’. This review paper draws the current research and trends in NTP pre-treatment of selected seeds/fruits that are useable as ‘raw seeds’. The main applications are connected with activation of seed germination, early growth of seedlings, microbial inactivation of seed/fruit surface, and possibility of increasing quantity of biological active compounds in sprouting seeds. The paper presents a list of plant species that are able to be used as ‘raw seed’ including current information about main type of NTP treatment implemented.