Special issue on selected papers from HVDP 2018
Humidity effects on the ground-level resultant electric field of positive DC conductors
The effects of humidity on the ground-level resultant electric field around positive DC conductors were studied both experimentally and numerically. Experiments were carried out in an artificial climate chamber, the results of which showed that the photon count and the groundlevel resultant electric field strength both increased with increasing relative humidity. Numerical calculations for different values of relative humidity were carried out, including solutions of the positive corona inception voltage and the ion-flow field, for which a photoionization model and the upstream finite element method were employed, respectively. In order to analyze the effects of humidity, three main factors were considered: the ionization coefficient, the attachment coefficient in the photoionization model and the modified ion mobility of the charged water particles. The results indicated that, with increasing relative humidity, increasing values of the effective ionization coefficient were responsible for a reduction in the inception voltage, and the reduction reinforced the ground-level resultant electric field. Moreover, due to the charged water particles and the lower ion mobility with increasing relative humidity, the space charge density distribution was enhanced, which also strengthened the ground-level resultant electric field.
Electric characteristic and cavitation bubble dynamics using underwater pulsed discharge
Underwater pulsed discharge is widely applied in medicine, machining, and material modification. The induced cavitation bubble and subsequent cavitation collapse are considered the major motivations behind these applications. This paper presents an underwater pulsed discharge system. The experimental setup is established to induce and investigate the cavitation bubble assisted with a high-speed camera. Three aspects, including the characteristic of the discharge with different applied voltages and conductivities, the evolution of the cavitation bubble profile, and the energy efficiency of cavitation bubble inducing, are investigated, respectively. Especially, the mechanism of pre-discharge time delay in the low field intensity case is explained using the Joule heat effect. The results show the validity of the underwater pulsed discharger and experimental setup. The present underwater pulsed discharger is proved to be a simple, portable, and easy-to-implement device for the investigation of cavitation bubble dynamics.
Influence of nitrogen impurities on the characteristics of a patterned helium dielectric barrier discharge at atmospheric pressure Hot!
In this paper, a two-dimensional axisymmetric fluid model was established to investigate the influence of nitrogen impurity content on the discharge pattern and the relevant discharge characteristics in an atmosphere pressure helium dielectric barrier discharge (DBD). The results indicated that when the nitrogen content was increased from 1 to 100 ppm, the discharge pattern evolved from a concentric-ring pattern into a uniform pattern, and then returned to the concentricring pattern. In this process, the discharge mode at the current peak moment transformed from glow mode into Townsend mode, and then returned to glow mode. Further analyses revealed that with the increase of impurity level, the rate of Penning ionization at the pre-ionization stage increased at first and decreased afterwards, resulting in a similar evolution pattern of seed electron level. This evolution trend was believed to be resulted from the competition between the N2 partial pressure and the consumption rate of metastable species. Moreover, the discharge uniformity was found positively correlated with the spatial uniformity of seed electron density as well as the seed electron level. The reason for this correlation was explained by the reduction of radial electric field strength and the promotion of seed electron uniformity as pre-ionization level increases. The results obtained in this work may help better understand the pattern formation mechanism of atmospheric helium DBD under the variation of N2 impurity level, thereby providing a possible means of regulating the discharge performance in practical application scenarios.
Generation of atmospheric pressure diffuse dielectric barrier discharge based on multiple potentials in air
In order to achieve atmospheric pressure diffuse dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) in air, a helical–helical electrode structure with a floating-voltage electrode is proposed in this paper. Results from an electric field distribution simulation indicate that strong electric fields are formed where the helical-contact electrodes’ insulating layers are in contact with each other, as well as near the floating-voltage electrode, which contributes to the production of a large number of seed electrons. The electric field within the air gap is weak (< 3×106 Vm−1), which inhibits the rapid development of electron avalanches and the formation of filament discharge. The experimental result shows that a 3.0 mm width diffuse DBD is generated in air. Moreover, based on the study of the helical–helical electrode with a floating-voltage electrode, a threedimensional electrode structure is presented, and a three-dimensional diffuse discharge is generated in air by adopting this electrode structure. The plasma studied is stable and demonstrates good diffusion characteristics, and therefore has potential applications in the field of exhaust gas treatment and air purification.
PIC simulation of plasma properties in the discharge channel of a pulsed plasma thruster with flared electrodes
Plasma in the discharge channel of a pulsed plasma thruster (PPT) with flared electrodes is simulated by a self-developed two-dimensional code. The fully particle-in-cell method with Monte Carlo collision is employed to model the particle movement and collisions and investigate the plasma properties and acceleration process. Temporal and spatial variations of the electron density distribution and the ion velocity between electrodes are calculated and analyzed in detail. The computational results of the electron number density, which is in the order of 1023 m−3, show good agreements with experimental results of a PPT named ADD SIMP-LEX. The ion velocity distributions along the center line of the channel lead to a comprehensive understanding of ions accelerated by electromagnetic field. The electron distributions of PPT with discharge voltages varying from 1300 to 2000 V are compared. The diffusion of electrons presents strong dependency on discharge voltage and implies higher degree of ionization for higher voltage.
Estimation of plasma parameters in the process of micro-scale powder plastic and characteristics of its products
The temperature and density of plasma jets were estimated with a Boltzmann plot and Stark broadening of Ar I (696.54 nm) lines by optical emission spectroscopy (OES) in the process of plasma plastic, and the morphology and microstructure of tungsten (W) powders were investigated by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and x-ray Diffraction (XRD), respectively. The results show that the assumption of local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) was invalid at the end of the plasma jets, and earlier than this after the injection of tungsten powder. The temperature and electron density of the plasma jets were up to about T=6797 K with Qc=50 slpm and ne=1.05×1016 cm−3 with Qs=115 slpm at Z=60 mm, respectively, and both dropped rapidly with the injected tungsten powders of 20 μm. After the plasma plastic process, the spherical tungsten powders were prepared and there were some satellite particles on the surface of the spherical products. The tungsten powders were both composed of a single equilibrium α-W phase with a body centered cubic (bbc) crystal structure before and after plasma treatment.
Influence of high-voltage pulse parameters on the propagation of a plasma synthetic jet
In this work, a typical pin-to-pin plasma synthetic jet in static air is excited by a pulsed DC power supply. The influences of the pulse rising time, the amplitude and the repetition frequency of the pulse voltage on the jet flow have been investigated. First, using a high-speed Schlieren imaging technique, the induced shock waves and the fast jet flow generated by the plasma synthetic jet are characterized. With a deposited energy of 44 mJ per pulse, the velocity of the shock wave and the maximum velocity of the jet flow reach 320 m s−1 and 100 m s−1, respectively. Second, when the applied voltage increases from 12.8 kV to 16 kV, the maximum jet velocity increases from 66 m s−1 to 93 m s−1. On the other hand, as the pulse rising time varies from 50 ns to 500 ns, or the pulse repetition frequency increases from 5 Hz to 40 Hz, the jet velocity induced by the plasma synthetic jet is weakly dependent. In addition, a comparative study of the plasma synthetic jets using three commercial pulsed power supplies (XJ-15, NPG- 18, and PG-30) is implemented. It reveals that the maximum jet velocity of 120 m s−1 is obtained in the case of PG-30, with the longest pulse rising time and the lowest breakdown voltage, while the maximum velocity of 33 m s−1 is detected in the case of NPG-18, even though it has the shortest pulse rising time and the highest breakdown voltage.
Study of spatial and temporal evolution of Ar and F atoms in SF6/Ar microsecond pulsed discharge by optical emission spectroscopy Hot!
The study of sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) discharge is vital for its application in gas-insulated equipment. Direct current partial discharge (PD) may cause SF6 decomposition, and the decomposed products of SF6, such as F atoms, play a dominant role in the breakdown of insulation systems. In this study, the PD caused by metal protrusion defects is simulated by a needle-plate electrode using pulsed high voltage in SF6/Ar mixtures. The spatial and temporal characteristics of SF6/Ar plasma are analyzed by measuring the emission spectra of F and Ar atoms, which are important for understanding the characteristics of PD. The spatial resolved results show that both F and Ar atom spectral intensities increase first from the plate anode to the needle and then decrease under the conditions of a background pressure of 400 Pa, peak voltage of −1000 V, frequency of 2 kHz, pulse width of 60 μs, and electrode gap of 5–9 mm. However, the distribution characteristics of F and Ar are significantly different. The temporal distribution results show that the spectral intensity of Ar decreases first and then increases slowly, while the spectral intensity of F increases slowly for the duration of the pulsed discharge at the electrode gap of 5 mm and the pulse width of 40–80 μs.
Axial profiles of argon helicon plasma by optical emission spectroscope and Langmuir probe
We present the axial profiles of argon helicon plasma measured by a local optical emission spectroscope (OES) and Langmuir RF-compensated probe. The results show that the emission intensity of the argon atom lines (750 nm, 811 nm) is proportional to the plasma density determined by the Langmuir probe. The axial profile of helicon plasma depends on the discharge mode which changes with the RF power. Excited by helical antenna, the axial distribution of plasma density is similar to that of the external magnetic field in the capacitive coupled mode (E-mode). As the discharge mode changes into the inductively coupled mode (H-mode), the axial distribution of plasma density in the downstream can still be similar to that of the external magnetic field, but becomes more uniform in the upstream. When the discharge entered wave coupled mode (W-mode), the plasma becomes nearly uniform along the axis, showing a completely different profile from the magnetic field. The W-mode is expected to be a mixed pattern of helicon (H) and Trivelpiece-Gould (TG) waves.
Dynamic dielectric recovery performance of serial vacuum and SF6 gaps in HVDC interruption and its regulation method
Vacuum gaps have rapid dynamic dielectric recovery speed while SF6 gaps have high insulation strength. The series-connected vacuum and SF6 gaps are used as the main switch (MS), which combines their advantages. The work aims to verify the feasibility of serial vacuum and SF6 gaps in mechanical HVDC interruption. The test circuit of the dynamic dielectric recovery performance (DDRP) is set up. The DDRP is tested under free recovery condition by the high voltage pulse source. The DDRP of the vacuum circuit breaker (VCB) and SF6 gas circuit breaker (GCB) in DC interruption with active current injection is analyzed and compared. The test results indicate that the dielectric recovery duration of the VCB is below 30 μs while that of the GCB is above 100 μs. In order to achieve the cooperation between the VCB and GCB, a novel hybrid HVDC circuit breaker (CB) based on series-connected vacuum and SF6 gaps is proposed. The ‘voltage-zero’ duration is created by introducing the follow current loop and there more recovery time for the dielectric recovery of the MS. The voltage distribution is controlled by the voltage dividing method so that the VCB undertakes the initial transient recovery voltage (TRV) and the later TRV is took by the GCB. The theoretical synergy characteristic of the novel HVDC CB is obtained. The paper supplies a new method to improve the custom mechanical HVDC CB, which is useful to achieve the HVDC CB with less serial breaks.
Direct impact characteristics of magnesite fragmentation by pulsed discharge in water
To clarify direct impact characteristics (pressure and position) of middle-grade magnesite fragmentation by pulsed discharge in water, this work uses pressure film to accomplish passive measurement through pulsed discharge experiment and obtain the pressure. The impact position is determined by image analysis of fragmentation product morphology, crack edge and discharge channel. Then, pressure load on magnesite surface is numerically analyzed based on the measured pressure obtained from the film. Results indicate that, at 10 mm discharge gap, the impact pressure increases with the discharge voltage, and the discharge voltage to disintegrate magnesite is −40 kV. The impact position is normally in the boundary among different mineral components. Simulation analysis indicates that, the pressure load applied directly on magnesite surface is approximately 142.5 MPa at −40 kV and greater than the compressive strength of magnesite, thus leading to the fragmentation.
Study of nonlinear mode–mode couplings between Alfvénic modes by the Fourier bicoherence and Lissajous-curve technique in HL-2A
Nonlinear couplings of various Alfvén modes driven by energetic particles in HL-2A are addressed by employing the Fourier bicoherence and Lissajous-curve technique. Long-lived modes and high-frequency coherent modes are presented. Then the squared bicoherence of three waves establishes the existence of three-wave coupling. Lissajous-curves of those waves manifest that their phases are locked, which again confirms that they are nonlinearly coupled to each other. Moreover, coupled modes triggered by supersonic molecular beam injection are investigated. The phase evolution of them is given by the Lissajous-curve. Further details of phase-flip and phase-slip are presented and discussed.
Optimized analysis of ionospheric amplitude modulated heating parameters for excitation of very/extremely low frequency radiations
It is now well known that amplitude modulated (AM) high frequency (HF) radio wave transmissions into the ionosphere can be used to generate very/extremely low frequency (VLF/ ELF) radio waves using the so-called ‘electrojet antenna’. Duty cycle and heating frequency are analyzed and discussed with the lower-ionosphere modulated heating model, so as to improve the radiation efficiency of VLF/ELF waves in AM ionospheric heating experiments. Based on numerical simulation, the ranges of parametric selectivity in optimal duty cycle and heating frequency ( fHF) are derived. The International Reference Ionosphere 2015 (IRI-2015) model and two-parameter model are used to predict background electron density profiles, and optimized ranges of duty cycle for different density profiles are analyzed and compared. The influences of wave polarizations on optimal duty cycle are also discussed. It is shown that intensity of the VLF/ELF equivalent radiation source (M) firstly rises and then falls with the increase of duty cycle. When using the IRI model, M peaks at a duty cycle of 50%, optimally ranging from 40% −70%. For the two-parameter model case, an optimal duty cycle is 40% and the optimized ranges vary from 30%−60%. Heating with an X-mode polarization is more efficient than with the O-mode case in VLF/ELF wave generation. Nevertheless, an optimal duty cycle is almost independent of HF wave polarizations. To obtain better VLF/ELF generation, optional fHF may be 0.8−0.9 times of foE for the O-mode heating and 0.75−0.85 times for the X-mode polarization case. Finally, the variations of these two parameters in different latitudes are discussed.
Frequency dependence of plasma characteristics at different pressures in cylindrical inductively coupled plasma source
The effects of driving frequency on plasma parameters and electron heating efficiency are studied in cylindrical inductively coupled plasma (ICP) source. Measurements are made in an Ar discharge for driving frequency at 13.56/2 MHz, and pressures of 0.4–1.2 Pa. In 13.56 MHz discharge, higher electron density (ne) and higher electron temperature (Te) are observed in comparison with 2 MHz discharge at 0.6–1.2 Pa. However, slightly higher ne and Te are observed in 2 MHz discharge at 0.4 Pa. This observation is explained by enhanced electron heating efficiency due to the resonance between the oscillation of 2 MHz electromagnetic field and electron-neutral collision process at 0.4 Pa. It is also found that the variation of Te distribution is different in 13.56 and 2 MHz discharge. For ICP at 13.56 MHz, Te shows an edge-high profile at 0.4–1.2 Pa. For 2 MHz discharge, Te remains an edge-high distribution at 0.4–0.8 Pa. However, the distribution pattern involves into a center-high profile at 0.9–1.2 Pa. The spatial profiles of ne remain a center-high shape in both 13.56 and 2 MHz discharges, which indicates the nonlocal kinetics at low pressures. Better uniformity could be achieved by using 2 MHz discharge. The effects of gas pressure on plasma parameters are also examined. An increase in gas pressure necessitates the rise of ne in both 13.56 and 2 MHz discharges. Meanwhile, Te drops when gas pressure increases and shows a flatter distribution at higher pressure.
Experimental investigation on ablation characteristics of coated and uncoated steel under 30/80 μs impulse current
The ablation tests on coated and uncoated Q235B steel sheets were conducted under 30/80 μs impulse current simulating the lightning first return stroke current, aimed at further understanding the ablation characteristics of steel and investigating the impact of anti-corrosion coating on these characteristics. Ablation characteristics were investigated through the macroscopic morphology and x-ray diffraction patterns on the surface of damaged zones, the microstructure and micro Vickers hardness on the cross-section of damaged zones, and the maximum rear-face temperature of sample sheets. It can be concluded that the ablation areas of uncoated sheet consist of the melted layer and the heat-affect layer. These ablation areas include not only the area ablated directly by the arc root, of which the depth is deeper, but also the area forming due to the splashing of molten steel, of which the depth is shallower and decreases when the area’s distance from the arc attachment point increases. For coated sheet, coating materials have decomposed and evaporated forming an ablation pit on the sheet surface, in which the steel surface is exposed, and zinc filler of coating primer has infused into the exposed surface. The ablation diameter of uncoated sheet relates to the amplitude of the 30/80 μs impulse current in quadratic function, while for coated sheet, the relation is linear. In general, under the 30/80 μs impulse current, the coating can decrease the energy injected from the arc to the steel sheet and reduce the melting and splashing of steel. As a result, the ablation severity of uncoated sheet is severer than that of coated sheet.
Evaluation on a double-chamber gas-liquid phase discharge reactor for benzene degradation
A double-chamber gas-liquid phase DBD reactor (GLDR), consisting of a gas-phase discharge chamber and a gas-liquid discharge chamber in series, was designed to enhance the degradation of benzene and the emission of NOx. The performance of the GLDR on discharge characteristics, reactive species production and benzene degradation was compared to that of the single-chamber gas phase DBD reactor (GPDR). The effects of discharge gap, applied voltage, initial benzene concentration, gas flow rate and solution conductivity on the degradation and energy yield of benzene in the GLDR were investigated. The GLDR presents a higher discharge power, higher benzene degradation and higher energy yield than that of the GPDR. NO2 emission was remarkably inhibited in the GLDR, possibly due to the dissolution of NO2 in water. The benzene degradation efficiency increased with the applied voltage, but decreased with the initial concentration, gas flow rate, and gas discharge gap, while the solution conductivity presented less influence on benzene degradation. The benzene degradation efficiency and the energy yield reached 61.11% and 1.45 g kWh–1 at 4 mm total gas discharge gap, 15 kV applied voltage, 200 ppm benzene concentration, 0.2 L min−1 gas flow rate and 721 μS cm−1 water conductivity. The intermediates and byproducts during benzene degradation were detected by FT-IR, GC-MS and LC-MS primarily, and phenols, COx, and other aromatic substitutes, O3, NOx, etc, were determined as the main intermediates. According to these detected byproducts, a possible benzene degradation mechanism was proposed.