Plasma equilibrium calculation in J-TEXT tokamak
Plasma equilibrium has been calculated using an analytical method. The plasma profiles of the current density, safety factor, pressure and magnetic surface function are obtained. The analytical solution of the Grad–Shafranov (GS) equation is obtained by the variable separation method and compared with the computed results of the equilibrium fitting code EFIT.
Particle-in-cell/Monte Carlo simulation of filamentary barrier discharges Hot!
The plasma behavior of filamentary barrier discharges in helium is simulated using a two-dimensional (2D) particle-in-cell/Monte Carlo model. Four different phases have been suggested in terms of the development of the discharge: the Townsend phase; the space-charge dominated phase; the formation of the cathode layer, and the extinguishing phase. The spatial-temporal evolution of the particle densities, velocities of the charged particles, electric fields, and surface charges has been demonstrated. Our simulation provides insights into the underlying mechanism of the discharge and explains many dynamical behaviors of dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) filaments.
Experimental and simulation investigation of electrical and plasma parameters in a low pressure inductively coupled argon plasma
The electrical and plasma parameters of a low pressure inductively coupled argon plasma are investigated over a wide range of parameters (RF power, flow rate and pressure) by diverse characterizations. The external antenna voltage and current increase with the augment of RF power, whereas decline with the enhancement of gas pressure and flow rate conversely. Compared with gas flow rate and pressure, the power transfer efficiency is significantly improved by RF power, and achieved its maximum value of 0.85 after RF power injected excess 125 W. Optical emission spectroscopy (OES) provides the local mean values of electron excited temperature and electron density in inductively coupled plasma (ICP) post regime, which vary in a range of 0.81 eV to 1.15 eV and 3.7× 1016 m -3 to 8.7× 1017m -3, respectively. Numerical results of the average magnitudes of electron temperature and electron density in two-dimensional distribution exhibit similar variation trend with the experimental results under different operating condition by using COMSOL Multiphysics. By comprehensively understanding the characteristics in a low pressure ICP, optimized operating conditions could be anticipated aiming at different academic and industrial applications.
Measurement of electron density and electron temperature of a cascaded arc plasma using laser Thomson scattering compared to an optical emission spectroscopic approach
As advanced linear plasma sources, cascaded arc plasma devices have been used to generate steady plasma with high electron density, high particle flux and low electron temperature. To measure electron density and electron temperature of theplasmadeviceaccurately, alaser Thomson scattering (LTS) system, which is generally recognized as the most precise plasma diagnostic method, has been established in our lab in Dalian University of Technology. The electron density has been measured successfully in the region of 4.5×1019 m-3 to 7.1×1020 m-3 and electron temperature in the region of 0.18 eV to 0.58 eV. For comparison, an optical emission spectroscopy (OES) system was established as well. The results showed that the electron excitation temperature (conguration temperature) measured by OES is significantly higher than the electron temperature (kinetic electron temperature) measured by LTS by up to 40% in the given discharge conditions. The results indicate that the cascaded arc plasma is recombining plasma and it is not in local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE).This leads to significant error using OES when characterizing the electron temperature in a non-LTE plasma.
Characteristics of gas-liquid diaphragm discharge and its application on decolorization of brilliant red B in aqueous solution
A simple gas-liquid diaphragm discharge reactor was designed and characteristics of the discharge and its application on decolorization of brilliant red B in an aqueous solution were investigated. The results showed that strong oxidizing agents such as •OH and •O radicals were generated. Average electron temperature of the discharge was 0.72 eV, 1.15 eV and 0.83 eV with air, oxygen and argon as the discharge gas, respectively. Solution pH and conductivity changed little when oxygen or argon was used as the discharge gas; however, these two parameters changed significantly when the discharge was performed in air. During the discharge treatment, the characteristic absorption peaks of brilliant red B gradually decreased where the decolorization followed the first-order kinetics. With 10 min of discharge, the decolorization of brilliant red B (30 mg L-1) can reach 96%, 81% and 62% in the cases of oxygen, argon and air, respectively. The analysis of by-products showed that the brilliant red B molecule can be effectively destroyed in this discharge mode.
Plasma-induced grafting of acrylic acid on bentonite for the removal of U(VI) from aqueous solution
Fabrication of reusable adsorbents with satisfactory adsorption capacity and using environment-friendly preparation processes is required for the environment-related applications. In this study, acrylic acid (AA) was grafted onto bentonite (BT) to generate an AA-graft-BT (AA-g-BT) composite using a plasma-induced grafting technique considered to be an environment-friendly method. The as-prepared composite was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, x-ray powder diffraction, thermal gravity analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and Barrett–Emmett–Teller analysis, demonstrating the successful grafting of AA onto BT. In addition, the removal of uranium(VI)(U(VI)) from contaminated aqueous solutions was examined using the as-prepared composite. The influencing factors, including contact time, pH value, ionic strength, temperature, and initial concentration, for the removal of U(VI) were investigated by batch experiments. The experimental process fitted best with the pseudo-second-order kinetic and the Langmuir models. Moreover, thermodynamic investigation revealed a spontaneous and endothermic process. Compared with previous adsorbents, AA-g-BT has potential practical applications in treating U(VI)-contaminated solutions.
A novel approach of deposition for uniform diamond films on circular saw blades
Uniform diamond films are highly desirable for cutting industries, due to their high performance and long lifetime used on cutting tools. Nevertheless, they are difficult to obtain on cutting tools with complicated shapes, greatly limiting the applications of diamond films. In this study, a novel approach of deposition for uniform diamond films is proposed, on circular saw blades made of cemented carbide using reflectors of brass sheets. Diamond films are deposited using hot filament chemical vapor deposition (HFCVD). A novel concave structure of brass sheets is designed and fabricated, improving the distribution of temperature field, and overcoming the disadvantages of the conventional HFCVD systems. This increases the energy efficiency of use without changing the structure and increasing the cost of HFCVD. The grains are refined and the intensities of diamond peaks are strengthened obviously, which is confirmed by scanning electron microscopy and Raman spectra respectively.
Effect of indirect non-thermal plasma on particle size distribution and composition of diesel engine particles
To explore the effect of the gas source flow rate on the actual diesel exhaust particulate matter (PM), a test bench for diesel engine exhaust purification was constructed, using indirect non-thermal plasma technology. The effects of different gas source flow rates on the quantity concentration, composition, and apparent activation energy of PM were investigated, using an engine exhaust particle sizer and a thermo-gravimetric analyzer. The results show that when the gas source flow rate was large, not only the maximum peak quantity concentrations of particles had a large drop, but also the peak quantity concentrations shifted to smaller particle sizes from 100 nm to 80 nm. When the gas source flow rate was 10 L min-1, the total quantity concentration greatly decreased where the removal rate of particles was 79.2%, and the variation of the different mode particle proportion was obvious. Non-thermal plasma (NTP) improved the oxidation ability of volatile matter as well as that of solid carbon. However, the NTP gas source rate had little effects on oxidation activity of volatile matter, while it strongly influenced the oxidation activity of solid carbon. Considering the quantity concentration and oxidation activity of particles, a gas source flow rate of 10 L min-1 was more appropriate for the purification of particles.
Conversion of NO with a catalytic packed-bed dielectric barrier discharge reactor
This paper discusses the conversion of nitric oxide (NO) with a low-temperature plasma induced by a catalytic packed-bed dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) reactor. Alumina oxide (Al2O3), glass (SiO2) and zirconium oxide (ZrO2), three different spherical packed materials of the same size, were each present in the DBD reactor. The NO conversion under varying input voltage and specific energy density, and the effects of catalysts (titanium dioxide (TiO2) and manganese oxide (MnOx) coated on Al2O3) on NO conversion were investigated. The experimental results showed that NO conversion was greatly enhanced in the presence of packed materials in the reactor, and the catalytic packed bed of MnOx/Al2O3 showed better performance than that of TiO2/Al2O3. The surface and crystal structures of the materials and catalysts were characterized through scanning electron microscopy analysis. The final products were clearly observed by a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer and provided a better understanding of NO conversion.
Three modes of a direct-current plasma jet operated underwater to degrade methylene blue
intermittently-pulsed discharge, a periodically-pulsed discharge and a continuous discharge with increasing the power voltage. The three discharge modes have different appearances for the plasma plumes. Moreover, gap voltage-current characteristics indicate that the continuous discharge is in a normal glow regime. Spectral lines from reactive species (OH, N2, N2 +,Hα, and O) have been revealed in the emission spectrum of the plasma jet operated underwater. Spectral intensities emitted from OH radical and oxygen atom increase with increasing the power voltage or the gas flow rate, indicating that reactive species are abundant. These reactive species cause the degradation of the methylene blue dye in solution. Effects of the experimental parameters such as the power voltage, the gas flow rate and the treatment time are investigated on the degradation efficiency. Results indicate that the degradation efficiency increases with increasing the power voltage, the gas flow rate or the treatment time. Compared with degradation in the intermittently-pulsed mode or the periodically-pulsed one, it is more efficient in the continuous mode, reaching 98% after 21 min treatment.
Tunable biasing magnetic field design of ferrite tuner for ICRF heating system in EAST
Ion cyclotron range of frequency (ICRF) heating has been used in tokamaks as one of the most successful auxiliary heating tools and has been adopted in the EAST. However, the antenna load will fluctuate with the change of plasma parameters in the ICRF heating process. To ensure the steady operation of the ICRF heating system in the EAST, fast ferrite tuner (FFT) has been carried out to achieve real-time impedance matching. For the requirements of the FFT impedance matching system, the magnet system of the ferrite tuner (FT) was designed by numerical simulations and experimental analysis, where the biasing magnetic circuit and alternating magnetic circuit were the key researched parts of the ferrite magnet. The integral design goal of the FT magnetic circuit is that DC bias magnetic field is 2000 Gs and alternating magnetic field is ±400 Gs. In the FTT, E-type magnetic circuit was adopted. Ferrite material is NdFeB with a thickness of 30 mm by setting the working point of NdFeB, and the ampere turn of excitation coil is 25 through the theoretical calculation and simulation analysis. The coil inductance to generate alternating magnetic field is about 7 mH. Eddy-current effect has been analyzed, while the magnetic field distribution has been measured by a Hall probe in the medium plane of the biasing magnet. Finally, the test results show the good performance of the biasing magnet satisfying the design and operating requirements of the FFT.
Updated neutronics analyses of a water cooled ceramic breeder blanket for the CFETR
The water cooled ceramic breeder (WCCB) blanket employing pressurized water as a coolant is one of the breeding blanket candidates for the China Fusion Engineering Test Reactor (CFETR). Some updating of neutronics analyses was needed, because there were changes in the neutronics performance of the blanket as several significant modifications and improvements have been adopted for the WCCB blanket, including the optimization of radial build-up and customized structure for each blanket module. A 22.5 degree toroidal symmetrical torus sector 3D neutronics model containing the updated design of the WCCB blanket modules was developed for the neutronics analyses. The tritium breeding capability, nuclear heating power, radiation damage, and decay heat were calculated by the MCNP and FISPACT code. The results show that the packing factor and 6Li enrichment of the breeder should both be no less than 0.8 to ensure tritium self-sufficiency. The nuclear heating power of the blanket under 200 MW fusion power reaches 201.23 MW. The displacement per atom per full power year (FPY) of the plasma-facing component and first wall reach 0.90 and 2.60, respectively. The peak H production rate reaches 150.79 appm/FPY and the peak He production reaches 29.09 appm/FPY in blanket module #3. The total decay heat of the blanket modules is 2.64 MW at 1 s after shutdown and the average decay heat density can reach 11.09 kW m-3 at that time. The decay heat density of the blanket modules slowly decreases to lower than 10 W m-3 in more than ten years.
Geometrical aspects of cylindric magnetic shields in strong static fields
Motivated by ITER (the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor), research on a magnetic shield against a strong field has been carried out. In this paper, a cylindric magnetic shield is studied by using the finite element method with a nonlinear magnetization curve. The geometrical aspects of shielding performance are identified and corresponding suggestions for application are provided. Among them, the effects of the edge and cover thickness have not been mentioned elsewhere to our knowledge.