Influences of frequency on nitrogen fixation of dielectric barrier discharge in air
The influences of frequency on nitrogen fixation of dielectric barrier discharge in air were studied by electrical diagnostics, gas detection and infrared detection methods. The system power, nitrogen oxide concentration, voltage–current waveform, dielectric surface temperature distribution and filamentous discharge pictures were measured, and then the energy yield was calculated; paper studied their changing tendencies in the presence of frequency. Results show that frequency has strong influences on nitrogen fixation. When the parameters of reaction chamber and amplitude of applied voltage is fixed, with the increasing of frequency, the system power increases; in 5–10 kHz, nitrogen oxide gas concentration up to 1113.7 mg m-3, and 7 kHz is the optimal nitrogen fixation frequency whose energy yield is 20.5 mg (m3 W)-1.
NO reduction using low-temperature SCR assisted by a DBD method
This paper discusses the removal of nitric oxide (NO) with low-temperature selective catalytic reduction driven by a dielectric barrier discharge with ammonia (NH3) as a reductant. We explored the effects of NH3, O2, temperature and water under different applied voltage on NO removal at atmospheric pressure. The results showed that when the gas concentration ration of NH3/NO was 0.23–0.67, the NO removal efficiency and the energy consumption was acceptable. The NO removal efficiency reached 84% under an applied voltage of 7 kV, 400 ppm NO and 90 ppm NH3 at a temperature of 150 °C. Water vapor had a negative effect because NO formation reactions were strengthened and NH3 was oxidized directly rather than reduced NO molecules. The outlet gas components were observed via Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy for revealing the decomposition process and mechanism.
Characteristics and application of diffuse discharge of water electrode in air
Plasma water treatment technology, which aims to produce strong oxidizing reactive particles that act on the gas–liquid interface by way of discharging, is used to treat the organic pollutants that do not degrade easily in water. This paper presents a diffuse-discharge plasma water treatment method, which is realized by constructing a conical air gap through an uneven medium layer. The proposed method uses water as one electrode, and a dielectric barrier discharge electrode is constructed by using an uneven dielectric. The electric field distribution in the discharge space will be uneven, wherein the long gap electric field will have a smaller intensity, while the short one will have a larger intensity. A diffuse glow discharge is formed in the cavity. With this type of plasma water treatment equipment, a methyl orange solution with a concentration of 10 mg l-1 was treated, and the removal rate was found to reach 88.96%.
A numerical simulation study on active species production in dense methane-air plasma discharge
Recently, low-temperature atmospheric pressure plasmas have been proposed as a potential type of ‘reaction carrier’ for the conversion of methane into value-added chemicals. In this paper, the multi-physics field coupling software of COMSOL is used to simulate the detailed discharge characteristics of atmospheric pressure methane-air plasma. A two-dimensional axisymmetric fluid model is constructed, in which 77 plasma chemical reactions and 32 different species are taken into account. The spatial density distributions of dominant charged ions and reactive radical species, such as CH4+ , CH3+ , N2+ , O2+, H, O, CH3, and CH2, are presented, which is due to plasma chemical reactions of methane/air dissociation (or ionization) and reforming of small fragment radical species. The physicochemical mechanisms of methane dissociation and radical species recombination are also discussed and analyzed.
Effects of direct current discharge on the spatial distribution of cylindrical inductivelycoupled plasma at different gas pressures
Stable operations of single direct current (DC) discharge, single radio frequency (RF) discharge and DC?+?RF hybrid discharge are achieved in a specially-designed DC enhanced inductivelycoupled plasma (DCE-ICP) source. Their plasma characteristics, such as electron density, electron temperature and the electron density spatial distribution profiles are investigated and compared experimentally at different gas pressures. It is found that under the condition of single RF discharge, the electron density distribution profiles show a ‘convex’ shape and ‘saddle’ shape at gas pressures of 3 mTorr and 150 mTorr respectively. This result can be attributed to the transition of electron kinetics from nonlocal to local kinetics with an increase in gas pressure. Moreover, in the operation of DC+RF hybrid discharge at different gas pressures, the DC discharge has different effects on plasma uniformity. The plasma uniformity can be improved by modulating DC power at a high pressure of 150 mTorr where local electron kinetics is dominant, whereas plasma uniformity deteriorates at a low pressure of 3 mTorr where nonlocal electron kinetics prevails. This phenomenon, as analyzed, is due to the obvious nonlinear enhancement effect of electron density at the chamber center, and the inherent radial distribution difference in the electron density with single RF discharge at different gas pressures.
Study of vortex in flow fields induced by surface dielectric barrier discharge actuator at low pressure based on Q criterion
Flow fields induced by a surface dielectric barrier discharge actuator at low pressure of 7 kPa are measured by particle image velocimetry. The distribution of local vortices in the flow field is revealed by the Q criterion. The reason for the generation of vortices is analyzed and the influence of pulse frequency and duty cycle on vortices is studied. The results show that the Q criterion can reveal the small-scale vortices, which cannot be indicated by the streamline. The direction transition zone where the induced jet moves from the vertical to the tangential and the shear layer between the jet and stationary air are prone to the generation of strong vortices.
The influence of pulse frequency on vortices is not obvious, but the variation of duty cycle can significantly affect the strength and distribution of vortices.
Research of magnetic self-balance used in a repetitive high voltage rectangular waveform pulse adder
Compared with a sinusoidal operation, pulsed operation has more homogeneity and more efficiency in dielectric barrier discharge. In this paper, an improved pulse adder is designed and assembled to create repetitive high voltage rectangular pulses when resistive loads or capacitive loads exist. Beyond the normal pulse adder based on solid-state switches, additional metal–oxide–semiconductor field effect transistors are used in each stage for a faster falling edge. Further, the voltage difference between stages is eliminated by balancing windings. In this paper, we represent our theoretical derivation, software simulations and hardware experiments on magnetic self-balance. The experiments show that the voltage difference between stages is eliminated by balancing windings, which matches the result of simulations with almost identical
circuits and parameters.
Breaking of a Langmuir wave in cold electron–positron–ion plasmas
The space–time evolution of a given density perturbation in cold homogeneous electron–positron–ion plasma is investigated with an assumption of infinitely massive ions by employing a numerical calculation method. The phase-mixing time and wave-breaking time can be effectively distinguished with this method. It is found that an increase of the ratio of equilibrium ion density to equilibrium electron density can attenuate plasma oscillations, leading to a delay in wave breaking. The dependence of the phase-mixing and wave-breaking times on the amplitude of the initial perturbation is also discussed.
Analysis on discharge process of a plasma-jet trigered gas spark switch
The plasma-jet triggered gas switch (PJTGS) could operate at a low working coefficient with a low jitter. We observed and analyzed the discharge process of the PJTGS at the lowest working coefficient of 47% with the trigger voltage of 40 kV and the pulse energy of 2 J to evaluate the effect of the plasma jet. The temporal and spatial evolution and the optical emission spectrum of the plasma jet were captured. And the spraying delay time and outlet velocity under different gas pressures were investigated. In addition, the particle in cell with Monte Carlo collision was employed to obtain the particle distribution of the plasma jet varying with time. The results show that, the plasma jet generated by spark discharge is sprayed into a spark gap within tens of nanoseconds, and its outlet velocity could reach 104ms−1. The plasma jet plays a non-penetrating inducing role in the triggered discharge process of the PJTGS. On the one hand, the plasma jet provides the initial electrons needed by the discharge; on the other hand, a large number of electrons focusing on the head of the plasma jet distort the electric field between the head of the plasma jet and the opposite electrode. Therefore, a fast discharge originated from the plasma jet is induced and quickly bridges two electrodes.
Optical measurements and analytical modeling of magnetic field generated in a dieletric target
Polarization rotation of a probe pulse by the target is observed with the Faraday rotation method in the interaction of an intense laser pulse with a solid target. The rotation of the polarization plane of the probe pulse may result from a combined action of fused silica and diffused electrons. After the irradiation of the main pulse, the rotation angle changed significantly and lasted ∼2 ps. These phenomena may imply a persistent magnetic field inside the target. An analytical model is developed to explain the experimental observation. The model indicates that a strong toroidal magnetic field is induced by an energetic electron beam. Meanwhile, an ionization channel is bserved in the shadowgraph and extends at the speed of light after the irradiation of the main beam. The formation of this ionization channel is complex, and a simple explanation is given.
Plasma surface treatment of Cu by nanosecond-pulse diffuse discharges in atmospheric air
Nanosecond-pulse diffuse discharges could provide high-density plasma and high-energy electrons at atmospheric pressure. In this paper, the surface treatment of Cu by nanosecond-pulse diffuse discharges is conducted in atmospheric air. Factors influencing the water contact angle (WCA), chemical composition and microhardness, such as the gap spacing and treatment time, are investigated. The results show that after the plasma surface treatment, the WCA considerably decreases from 87° to 42.3°, and the surface energy increases from 20.46 mJ m−2 to 66.28 mJ m−2. Results of energy dispersive x-ray analysis show that the concentration of carbon decreases, but the concentrations of oxygen and nitrogen increase significantly. Moreover, the microhardness increases by approximately 30% after the plasma treatment. The aforementioned changes on the Cu surface indicate the plasma surface treatment enhances the hydrophilicity and microhardness, and it cleans the carbon and achieves oxidization on the Cu surface. Furthermore, by increasing the gap spacing and treatment time, better treatment effects can be obtained. The microhardness in the case of a 2.5 cm gap is higher than that in the case of a 3 cm gap. More oxygen and nitrogen species appear on the Cu surface for the 2.5 cm gap treatment than for the 3 cm gap treatment. TheWCA significantly decreases with the treatment time when it is no longer than 90 s, and then it reaches saturation. In addition, more oxygen-containing and nitrogen-containing groups appear after extended plasma treatment time. They contribute to the improvement of the hydrophilicity and oxidation on the Cu surface.
Study on the properties of a ε-Fe3N-based magnetic lubricant prepared by DBD plasma
The ε-Fe3N-based magnetic lubricant which is stable and high saturation magnetization has been prepared by a homemade DBD device under the atmospheric pressure. The results show that the NH3 flow rate, the applied peak-to-peak voltage and the mass ratio of surfactant and carrier lubricant have important effects on the phase structure, the magnetic properties, the size of ferroparticles and the stability of the ε-Fe3N-based magnetic lubricant. TEM images show the ε-Fe3N ferroparticles are dispersed in the carrier lubricant homogeneously, and the cluster phenomenon is not observed. The stable ε-Fe3N-based magnetic lubricant with the saturation magnetization of 50.11 mT and the mean ferroparticle size of 11 nm is prepared successfully. The main particles of the atmospheric-pressure Ar/NH3/Fe(CO)5 DBD plasma are NH, N, N+, Fe, N2, Ar, Hα, and CO; NH is a decomposition product of NH3. Fe and N active radicals are two elementary species in the preparation of the ε-Fe3N-based magnetic lubricant in the atmospheric-pressure DBD plasma. There are two discharge modes for DBD plasma, namely, multi-pulse APGD and filamentary discharge. By increasing the applied peak-to-peak voltage from 4600 to 7800 V, the discharge mode is changed from single-pulse APGD with filamentary discharge to two-pulse APGD with filamentary discharge, and the Lissajous figure also converts from a quadrilateral with one step to two steps on the right-hand side.
Development and experimental study of large size composite plasma immersion ion implantation device
Plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII) overcomes the direct exposure limit of traditional beamline ion implantation, and is suitable for the treatment of complex work-piece with large size. PIII technology is often used for surface modification of metal, plastics and ceramics. Based on the requirement of surface modification of large size insulating material, a composite full-directional PIII device based on RF plasma source and metal plasma source is developed in this paper. This device can not only realize gas ion implantation, but also can realize metal ion implantation, and can also realize gas ion mixing with metal ions injection. This device has two metal plasma sources and each metal source contains three cathodes. Under the condition of keeping the vacuum unchanged, the cathode can be switched freely. The volume of the vacuum chamber is about 0.94 m3, and maximum vacuum degree is about 5×10−4 Pa. The density of RF plasma in homogeneous region is about 109 cm−3, and plasma density in the ion implantation region is about 1010 cm−3. This device can be used for large-size sample material PIII treatment, the maximum size of the sample diameter up to 400 mm. The experimental results show that the plasma discharge in the device is stable and can run for a long time. It is suitable for surface treatment of insulating materials.
Design and experimental research on a selfmagnetic pinch diode under MV
A self-magnetic pinch diode (SMPD) integrating an anode foil-reinforced electron beam pinch focus and a small high-dose x-ray spot output was designed and optimized. An x-ray focal spot measuring system was developed in accordance with the principle of pinhole imaging. The designed SMPD and the corresponding measuring system were tested under ∼MV, with 1.75×2 mm2 oval x-ray spots (AWE defined) and forward directed dose 1.6 rad at 1 m. Results confirmed that the anode foil can significantly strengthen the electron beam pinch focus, and the focal spot measuring system can collect clear focal spot images. This finding indicated that the principle and method are feasible.
Collision effects on propagation characteristics of electromagnetic waves in a sub-wavelength plasma slab of partially ionized dense plasmas
Intensive collisions between electrons and neutral particles in partially ionized plasmas generated in atmospheric/sub-atmospheric pressure environments can sufficiently affect the propagation characteristics of electromagnetic waves, particularly in the sub-wavelength regime. To investigate the collisional effect in such plasmas, we introduce a simplified plasma slab model with a thickness on the order of the wavelength of the incident electromagnetic wave. The scattering matrix method (SMM) is applied to solve the wave equation in the plasma slab with significant nonuniformity. Results show that the collisions between the electrons and the neutral particles, as well as the incident angle and the plasma thickness, can disturb the transmission and reduce reflection significantly.
Hydrogen cold plasma for synthesizing Pd/C catalysts: the effect of support–metal ion interaction
It has been found that cold plasma is a facile and environmentally benign method for synthesizing supported metal catalysts, and great efforts have been devoted to enlarging its applications. However, little work has been done to disclose the influence mechanism, which is significant for controllable synthesis. In this work, hydrogen cold plasma was adopted to synthesize a palladium catalyst supported on activated carbon (Pd/C-P) using H2PdCl4 as a Pd precursor followed by calcination in hydrogen gas to remove the chlorine ions. The Pd/C-P catalyst was found to be made of larger Pd nanoparticles showing a decreased migration to the support outer surface than that prepared by the conventional thermal hydrogen reduction method (Pd/C-C). Meanwhile, the pore diameter of the activated carbon support is small (∼4 nm). Therefore, Pd/C-P exhibits lower CO oxidation activity than Pd/C-C. It was proposed that the strong interaction between the activated carbon and PdCl42- , and the enhanced metal–support interaction caused by hydrogen cold plasma reduction made it difficult for Pd nanoparticles to migrate to the support outer surface. The larger-sized Pd nanoparticles for Pd/C-P may be due to the Coulomb interaction resulting in the disturbance of the metal–support interaction. This work has important guiding significance for the controllable synthesis of supported metal catalysts by hydrogen cold plasma.
Studies on omnidirectional enhancement of giga-hertz radiation by sub-wavelength plasma modulation
The technology of radio frequency (RF) radiation intensification for radio compact antennas based on modulation and enhancement effects of sub-wavelength plasma structures represents an innovative developing strategy. It exhibits important scientific significance and promising potential of broad applications in various areas of national strategic demands, such as electrical information network and microwave communication, detection and control technology. In this paper, laboratory experiments and corresponding analyses have been carried out to investigate the modulation and enhancement technology of sub-wavelength plasma structure on the RF electromagnetic radiation. An application focused sub-wavelength plasma-added intensification up to ∼7 dB higher than the free-space radiation is observed experimentally in giga-hertz (GHz) RF band. The effective radiation enhancement bandwidth covers from 0.85 to 1.17 GHz, while the enhanced electromagnetic signals transmitted by sub-wavelength plasma structures maintain good communication quality. Particularly, differing from the traditional RF electromagnetic radiation enhancement method characterized by focusing the radiation field of antenna in a specific direction, the sub-wavelength plasma-added intensification of the antenna radiation presents an omnidirectional enhancement, which is reported experimentally for the first time. Corresponding performance characteristics and enhancement mechanism analyses are also conducted in this paper. The results have demonstrated the feasibility and promising potential of sub-wavelength plasma modulation in application focused RF communication, and provided the scientific basis for further research and development of sub-wavelength plasma enhanced compact antennas with wide-range requests and good quality for communication.
The anode power supply for the ECRH system on the J-TEXT tokamak
The electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) system with a 60 GHz/200 kW/0.5 s gyrotron donated by the Culham Science Center is being developed on the J-TEXT tokamak for plasma heating, current drive and MHD studies. Simultaneously, an anode power supply (APS) has been rebuilt and tested for the output power control of the gyrotron, of which the input voltage is derived from an 80 kV negative cathode power supply. The control strategy by controlling the grid voltage of the tetrode TH5186 is applied to obtain an accurate anode climbing voltage, of which the output voltage can be obtained from 0–30 kV with respect to the cathode power supply. The characteristics of the APS, including control, protection, modulation, and output waveform, were tested with a 100 kV/60 A negative cathode power supply, a dummy load and the ECRH control system. The results indicate that the APS can meet the requirements of the ECRH system on J-TEXT.
Study on the RF inductively coupled plasma spheroidization of refractory W and W-Ta alloy powders
Spherical powders with good flowability and high stacking density are mandatory for powder bed additive manufacturing. Nevertheless, the preparation of spherical refractory tungsten and tungsten alloy powders is a formidable task. In this paper, spherical refractory metal powders processed by high-energy stir ball milling and RF inductively coupled plasma were investigated. By utilizing the technical route, pure spherical tungsten powders were prepared successfully, the flowability increased from 10.7 s/50 g to 5.5 s/50 g and apparent density increased from 6.916 g cm−3 to 11.041 g cm−3. Alloying element tantalum can reduce the tendency to microcrack
during tungsten laser melting and rapid solidification process. Spherical W-6Ta (%wt) powders were prepared in this way, homogeneous dispersion of tantalum in a tungsten matrix occurred but a small amount of flake-like shape particles appeared after high-energy stir ball milling. The flake-like shape particles can hardly be spheroidized in subsequent RF inductively coupled plasma process, might result from the unique suspended state of flaky particles under complex electric and magnetic fields as well as plasma-particle heat exchange was different under various turbulence models. As a result, the flake-like shape particles cannot pass through
the high-temperature area of thermal plasma torch and cannot be spheroidized properly.
High-efficiency removal of NOx using dielectric barrier discharge nonthermal plasma with water as an outer electrode
With the rapid increase in the number of cars and the development of industry, nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions have become a serious and pressing problem. This work reports on the development of a water-cooled dielectric barrier discharge reactor for gaseous NOx removal at low temperature. The characteristics of the reactor are evaluated with and without packing of the reaction tube with 2 mm diameter dielectric beads composed of glass, ZnO, MnO2, ZrO2, or Fe2O3. It is found that the use of a water-cooled tube reduces the temperature, which stabilizes the reaction, and provides a much greater NO conversion efficiency (28.8%) than that obtained
using quartz tube (14.1%) at a frequency of 8 kHz with an input voltage of 6.8 kV. Furthermore, under equivalent conditions, packing the reactor tube with glass beads greatly increases the NO conversion efficiency to 95.85%. This is because the dielectric beads alter the distribution of the electric field due to the influence of polarization at the glass bead surfaces, which ultimately enhances the plasma discharge intensity. The presence of the dielectric beads increases the gas residence time within the reactor. Experimental verification and a theoretical basis are provided for the industrial application of the proposed plasma NO removal process employing dielectric
Influence of arc current and pressure on non-chemical equilibrium air arc behavior
The influence of arc current and pressure on the non-chemical equilibrium (non-CE) air arc behavior of a nozzle structure was investigated based on the self-consistent non-chemical equilibrium model. The arc behavior during both the arc burning and arc decay phases were discussed at different currents and different pressures. We also devised the concept of a nonequilibrium parameter for a better understanding of non-CE effects. During the arc burning phase, the increasing current leads to a decrease of the non-equilibrium parameter of the particles in the arc core, while the increasing pressure leads to an increase of the non-equilibrium parameter of the particles in the arc core. During the arc decay phase, the non-CE effect will decrease by increasing the arc burning current and the nozzle pressure. Three factors together—convection, diffusion and chemical reactions—influence non-CE behavior.
Temporal and spatial dynamics of optical emission from laser ablation of the first wall materials of fusion device
Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) has been developed to in situ diagnose the chemical compositions of the first wall in the EAST tokamak. However, the dynamics of optical emission of the key plasma-facing materials, such as tungsten, molybdenum and graphite have not been investigated in a laser produced plasma (LPP) under vacuum. In this work, the temporal and spatial dynamics of optical emission were investigated using the spectrometer with ICCD. Plasma was produced by an Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm) with pulse duration of 6 ns. The results showed that the typical lifetime of LPP is less than 1.4 μs, and the lifetime of ions is shorter than atoms at ∼10−6 mbar. Temporal features of optical emission showed that the optimized delay times for collecting spectra are from 100 to 400 ns which depended on the corresponding species. For spatial distribution, the maximum LIBS spectral intensity in plasma plume is obtained in the region from 1.5 to 3.0 mm above the sample surface. Moreover, the plasma expansion velocity involving the different species in a multicomponent system was measured for obtaining the proper timing (gate delay time and gate width) of the maximum emission intensity and for understanding the plasma expansion mechanism. The order of expansion velocities for various species is VC+ > VH > VSi+ > VLi > VMo > VW. These results could be attributed to the plasma sheath acceleration and mass effect. In addition, an optimum signal-to-background ratio was investigated by varying both delay time and detecting position.
R&D progress of high power ion source on EAST-NBI
The neutral beam injector (NBI) system was designed and developed mainly for the plasma heating on the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST). The high power ion source is the key part of the NBI. A hot cathode ion source was used on the EAST-NBI. The ion source was conditioned on the ion source test bed with hydrogen gas and achieved the designed parameters. The deuterium gas was used when it moved to the EAST-NBI. The main performance of the ion source on EAST is presented in this paper. The highest beam power of 4.5 MW in NBI-1 and 2.75 MW in NBI-2 was achieved. The total neutral beam power is about 4.5 MW. The long pulse beam of 100 s is injected into the EAST plasma too.