A Rising Force for the World-Wide Development of Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy
Wavelength Dependence in the Analysis of Carbon Content in Coal by Nanosecond 266 nm and 1064 nm Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy
The wavelength dependence of laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) in the analysis of the carbon contents of coal was studied using 266 nm and 1064 nm laser radiations. Compared with the 1064 nm wavelength laser ablation, the 266 nm wavelength laser ablation has less thermal effects, resulting in a better crater morphology on the coal pellets. Besides, the 266 nm wavelength laser ablation also provides better laser-sample coupling and less plasma shielding, resulting in a higher carbon line intensity and better signal reproducibility. The carbon contents in the bituminous coal samples have better linearity with the line intensities of atomic carbon measured by the 266 nm wavelength than those measured by the 1064 nm wavelength. The partial least square (PLS) model was established for the quantitative analysis of the carbon content in coal samples by LIBS. The results show that both of the 266 nm and 1064 nm wavelengths are capable of achieving good performance for the quantitative analysis of carbon content in coal using the PLS method.
A Study on the Characteristics of Carbon-Related Spectral Lines from a Laser-Induced Fly Ash Plasma
A 1064 nm Nd:YAG laser was used to ablate fly ash samples. The characteristics of the spectral lines measured from the laserablated fly ash plasmas are presented with special attention to atomic and molecular carbon emission. It is shown that the intensity of the atomic line C I 192.9 nm is weak and the shot-to-shot intensity is fluctuant. The carbon atomic line C I 247.7 nm is relatively intensive and stable, however it is seriously interfered with by Fe I 247.8 nm. The intensity of the CN molecular line is close to that of C I 247.7 nm and the CN line is stable and less interfered with. The comparison of molecular CN emission under different conditions (air, Ar and N2) shows that the CN lines detected from the plasmas formed in an atmospheric environment are correlated with the reaction of carbon atoms in the plasma with the nitrogen in air, which indicates that the CN line is also important in pulsed laser ablation fly ash plasmas and this information can be incorporated in the detection of unburned carbon content in fly ash. Finally, a calibration curve is established with a correlation coefficient R2 of 0.999, using C I 247.7 nm and the CN molecular line as associated variables. In addition, accuracy is improved to a certain extent.
Heavy Metal Detection in Soils by Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy Using Hemispherical Spatial Confinement
Spatial confinement has great potential for Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) instruments after it has been proven that it has the ability to enhance the LIBS signal strength and repeatability. In order to achieve in-situ measurement of heavy metals in farmland soils by LIBS, a hemispherical spatial confinement device is designed and used to collect plasma spectra, in which the optical fibers directly collect the breakdown spectroscopy of the soil samples. This device could effectively increase the stability of the spectrum intensity of soil. It also has other advantages, such as ease of installation, and its small and compact size. The relationship between the spectrum intensity and the laser pulse energy is studied for this device. It is found that the breakdown threshold is 160 cm?2, and when the laser fluence increases to 250 J/cm2, the spectrum intensity reaches its maximum. Four different kinds of laser pulse energy were set up and in each case the limits of detection of Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn were calculated. The results show that when the laser pulse fluence was 2.12 GW/cm2, we obtained the smallest limits of detection of these heavy metals, which are all under 10 mg/kg. This device can satisfy the needs of heavy metal in-situ detection, and in the next step it will be integrated into a portable LIBS instrument.
Spatial Resolution Measurements of C, Si and Mo Using LIBS for Diagnostics of Plasma Facing Materials in a Fusion Device
Determination of the Insoluble Aluminum Content in Steel Samples by Using Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy
Temporal and Spatial Evolution of Laser-Induced Plasma from a Slag Sample
Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) has been demonstrated to be an effective method for slag analysis. In order to better clarify the nature of the plasma generated from a slag sample, an Nd:YAG pulse laser at 1064 nm wavelength was used to ablate the slag sample in air. The temporal and spatial evolutions of plasma parameters, including emission intensity, electronic density and plasma temperature, have been studied. It is shown that the electron density and plasma temperature drop off rapidly with the delay time as a result of plasma expansion and cooling. It has been found that the electron density of the whole plasma is close to that of the center regions in the plasma. The results of the spatial distributions on the two-dimensional plane have shown that there is a big region with lower electron density values caused by the recombination process in the center of the plasma. The maximum of the plasma temperature takes place at the regions close to the target, and the border of the plasma front-head has higher plasma temperatures than that of the center part.
Rock and Soil Classification Using PLS-DA and SVM Combined with a Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy Library
Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) has become a powerful technology in geological applications. The correct identification of rocks and soils is critical to many geological projects. In this study, LIBS database software with a user-friendly and intuitive interface is developed based on Windows, consisting of a database module and a sample identification module. The database module includes a basic database containing LIBS persistent lines for elements and a dedicated geological database containing LIBS emission lines for several rock and soil reference standards. The module allows easy use of the data. A sample identification module based on partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) or support vector machine (SVM) algorithms enables users to classify groups of unknown spectra. The developed system was used to classify rock and soil data sets in a dedicated database and the results demonstrate that the system is capable of fast and accurate classi?cation of rocks and soils, and is thus useful for the detection of geological materials.
The Spectral Emission Characteristics of Laser Induced Plasma on Tea Samples
Characterization of the Delamination Defects in Marine Steel Using Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy
In this paper, two types of comparison analyses, bulk analysis and defect analysis, were carried out for marine steel. The results of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) were compared with those of spark optical emission spectrometry (Spark-OES) and scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersion spectroscopy (SEM/EDS) in the bulk and defect analyses. The comparison of the bulk analyses shows that the chemical contents of C, Si, Mn, P, S and Cr obtained from LIBS agree well with those determined using Spark-OES. The LIBS is slightly less precise than Spark-OES. Defects were characterized in the two-dimensional distribution analysis mode for Al, Mg, Ca, Si and other elements. Both the LIBS and SEM/EDS results show the enrichment of Al, Mg, Ca and Si at the defect position and the two methods agree well with each other. SEM/EDS cannot provide information about the difference in the chemical constituents when the differences between the defect position and the normal position are not signi?cant. However, LIBS can provide this information, meaning that the sensitivity of LIBS is higher than that of SEM/EDS. LIBS can be used to rapidly characterize marine steel defects and provide guidance for improving metallurgical processes.
Application of Stand-off Double-Pulse Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy in Elemental Analysis of Magnesium Alloy
In this study, a stand-off and collinear double pulse laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (DP LIBS) system was designed, and the magnesium alloy samples at a distance of 2.5 m away from the LIBS system were measured. The effect of inter-pulse delay on spectra was studied, and the signal enhancement was observed compared to the single pulse LIBS (SP LIBS). The morphology of the ablated crater on the sample indicated a higher efficiency of surface pretreatment in DP LIBS. The calibration curves of Ytterbium (Y) and Zirconium (Zr) were investigated. The square of the correlation coefficient of the calibration curve of element Y reached up to 0.9998.
A Study of the Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy of Carbon in the Ultraviolet Wavelength Range Under Vacuum Conditions
The influence of a vacuum on the laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) of carbon in the ultraviolet wavelength range is studied. Experiments are performed with graphite using a LIBS system, which consists of a 1064 nm Nd:YAG laser, a vacuum pump, a spectrometer and a vacuum chamber. The vacuum varies from 10 Pa to 1 atm. Atomic lines as well as singly and doubly charged ions are confirmed under the vacuums. A temporal evolution analysis of intensity is performed for the atomic lines of C I 193.09 nm and C I 247.86 nm under different vacuum conditions. Both time-integrated and time-resolved intensity evolutions under vacuums are achieved. The lifetimes of the two atomic lines have similar trends, which supports the point of view of a ‘soft spot’. Variations of plasma temperature and electron density under different vacuums are measured. This study is helpful for research on carbon detection using LIBS under vacuum conditions.
The Enhanced Effect of Optical Emission from Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy of an Al-Li Alloy in the Presence of Magnetic Field Confinement
In this paper, the influence of magnetic field strength on laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) has been investigated for various pressures. The plasma plume was produced by employing Q-switch Nd:YAG laser ablation of an Al-Li alloy operating at a 1064 nm wavelength. The results indicated that the LIBS intensity of the Al and Li emission lines is boosted with an increase of magnetic strength. Typically, the intensity of the Al I and Li I spectral emissions can be magnified by 1.5-3 times in a steady magnetic field of 1.1 T compared with the field-free case. Also, in this investigation we recorded time-resolved images of the laser-produced plume by employing a fast ICCD camera. The results show that the luminance of the plasma is enhanced and the time of persistence is increased signi?cantly, and the plasma plume splits into two lobes in the presence of a magnetic field. The probable reason for the enhancement is the magnetic con?nement effect which increases the number density of excited atoms and the population of species in a high energy state. In addition, the electron temperature and density are also augmented by the magnetic field compared to the field-free case.
The Effect of an External Magnetic Field on the Plume Expansion Dynamics of Laser-Induced Aluminum Plasma
In this work, we investigated the plasma morphology induced by a Nd:YAG laser with the aim of improving the understanding of the formation and dynamics of the plasma in two cases, with and without a magnetic field. Single laser pulse production of a plasma in the absence and presence of a magnetic field was performed with an aluminum target in air. A fast photography technique was employed to obtain information about the expansion dynamics and confinement of the aluminum plasma in each case. The generation of the laser plasma was allowed to expand at two locations with different magnetic field strengths, which correspond to the strength 0.58 T in the center of two magnetic poles and 0.83 T at a distance of 4 mm from the upper pole (N). The plume showed lateral con?nement at longer delays when the target was placed at the center of the two poles. When the target was placed at a distance of 4 mm from the upper pole it was observed that the plume was divided into two lobes at the initial stage and traveled towards the center of the magnetic field with further elapse of time.
Quantitative Analysis of Heavy Metals in Water Based on LIBS with an Automatic Device for Sample Preparation
Development of an Automated LIBS Analytical Test System Integrated with Component Control and Spectrum Analysis Capabilities
Nondestructive Determination of Cu Residue in Orange Peel by Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy
Quantitative Analysis of Mg in Pipeline Dirt Based on Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy