Development of a Laboratory Cement Quality Analysis Apparatus Based on Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy
Determination of the chemical composition of cement and ratio values of clinker plays an important role in cement plants as part of the optimal process control and product quality evaluation. In the present paper, a laboratory laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) apparatus mainly comprising a sealed optical module and an analysis chamber has been designed for possible application in cement plants for on-site quality analysis of cement. Emphasis is placed on the structure and operation of the LIBS apparatus, the sealed optical path, the temperature controlled spectrometer, the sample holder, the proper calibration model established for minimizing the matrix effects, and a correction method proposed for overcoming the ‘drift’ obstacle. Good agreement has been found between the laboratory measurement results from the LIBS method and those from the traditional method. The absolute measurement errors presented here for oxides analysis are within 0.5%, while those of ratio values are in the range of 0.02 to 0.05. According to the obtained results, this laboratory LIBS apparatus is capable of performing reliable and accurate, composition and proximate analysis of cement and is suitable for application in cement plants.
Microanalysis of Multi-Element in Juncus effusus L. by LIBS Technique
Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) was used to decipher the unique multi-elemental characteristics of Juncus e?usus L. The spectral fingerprints of Juncus e?usus L. were established based on elemental microanalysis via LIBS. Microanalysis and multimode sam?pling methodologies were designed in this study. The relative standard deviation (RSD) approach was performed to optimize the multi-shot measurements. Taking advantage of the capability with no or minimal sample pre-treatment of LIBS, a thermodynamic chart of four elements (Mg, Ca, Ba, and Na) was created from twelve collection regions. The diagram of elemental distribution on a micro-scale was generated to explore the nature of Juncus e?usus L. by LIBS. The results demon?strated that LIBS is a promising technique for rapid elemental microanalysis of heterogeneous samples.
Quantitative Analysis of Composition Change in AZ31 Magnesium Alloy Using CF-LIBS After Laser Material Processing
The concentration of elements in molten metal of AZ31 magnesium alloy after long pulsed Nd:YAG laser processing was quantitatively analyzed by using calibration-free laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (CF-LIBS). The composition change in AZ31 magnesium alloy under different laser pulse width was also investigated. The experimental results showed that CF-LIBS can obtain satisfactory quantitative or semi-quantitative results for matrix or major elements, while only qualitative analysis was possible for minor or trace elements. Moreover, it is found that the chemical composition of molten metal will change after laser processing. The concentration of magnesium in molten metal is lower than that present in the base metal. The Mg loss increases with an increase of pulse width in the laser processing. This result shows that the selective vaporization of di?erent elements is a?ected by the pulse width during laser processing.
Parameters Optimization of Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy Experimental Setup for the Case with Beam Expander
Improvement of measurement precision and repeatability is one of the issues cur?rently faced by the laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) technique, which is expected to be capable of precise and accurate quantitative analysis. It was found that there was great poten?tial to improve the signal quality and repeatability by reducing the laser beam divergence angle using a suitable beam expander (BE). In the present work, the influences of several experimental parameters for the case with BE are studied in order to optimize the analytical performances: the signal to noise ratio (SNR) and the relative standard deviation (RSD). We demonstrate that by selecting the optimal experimental parameters, the BE-included LIBS setup can give higher SNR and lower RSD values of the line intensity normalized by the whole spectrum area. For validation purposes, support vector machine (SVM) regression combined with principal component analysis (PCA) was used to establish a calibration model to realize the quantitative analysis of the ash content. Good agreement has been found between the laboratory measurement results from the LIBS method and those from the traditional method. The measurement accuracy presented here for ash content analysis is estimated to be 0.31%, while the average relative error is 2.36%.
Spectral Enhancement of Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy in External Magnetic Field
In this paper the spectral enhancement of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) for copper plasma in the presence of a magnetic field is investigated and the temporal-and spatial-resolved plasma emission spectra are analyzed. Experimental results show that the copper plasma atomic and ion spectra have been enhanced in the presence of the external magnetic field. In addition, the Cu I 521.82 nm spectral intensity evolution with delay time appears to have a double peak around the delay time of 2 μs, but that of Cu II 507.57 nm has a sharp decrease because of the electron-atom three body recombination process. The plasma temperature with magnetic confinement is lower than that of the case in the absence of magnetic fields. Finally, the spectral enhancement mechanisms of laser induced breakdown spectroscopy with magnetic confinement are analyzed.
Classification and Discrimination of Minerals Using Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy and Raman Spectroscopy
Quantitative Analysis of Carbon Content in Bituminous Coal by Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy Using UV Laser Radiation
Effect of Melting Iron-Based Alloy Temperature on Carbon Content Observed in Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy
Improved Measurement Performance of Inorganic Elements in Coal by Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy Coupled with Internal Standardization
Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy was employed to determine the inorganic elements in coal. To improve the measurement’s accuracy and precision, a new internal stan?dardization scheme, which we named changed internal standardization, was compared with the traditional internal standardization and no internal standardization for the analysis of inorganic el?ements. The new internal standardization scheme used the atomic line of carbon at 247.86 nm and the molecular band of CN at 388.34 nm and C2 at 516.32 nm to normalize the lines of inorganic elements that were distributed in the same spectral channel. The performance of the utilization of the new internal standardization scheme was evaluated using a set of coal samples, including twenty calibration samples and five validation samples. The results show that the coefficients of determination R2 and the slope of calibration models coupled with changed internal standard?ization are better than that of the calibration models coupled with fixed internal standardization and no internal standardization. Moreover, the measurement accuracy and reproducibility of changed internal standardization for the analysis of five validation samples also yielded further improvement. The results that we obtained suggest that changed internal standardization could compensate for the matrix effects, as well as the influence of the difference in the spectral response of the light collection system.
Methods of Data Processing for Trace Elements Analysis Using Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy
Application of Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy in Early Detection of Red Palm Weevil: (Rhynchophorus ferrugineus) Infestation in Date Palm
Signal Detection of Carbon in Iron-Based Alloy by Double-Pulse Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy
Characterization of Carbon Plasma Evolution Using Laser Ablation TOF Mass Spectrometry
Selection of Spectral Data for Classification of Steels Using Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy
Principal component analysis (PCA) combined with artificial neural networks was used to classify the spectra of 27 steel samples acquired using laser-induced breakdown spec?troscopy. Three methods of spectral data selection, selecting all the peak lines of the spectra, selecting intensive spectral partitions and the whole spectra, were utilized to compare the influ?ence of different inputs of PCA on the classification of steels. Three intensive partitions were selected based on experience and prior knowledge to compare the classification, as the partitions can obtain the best results compared to all peak lines and the whole spectra. We also used two test data sets, mean spectra after being averaged and raw spectra without any pretreatment, to verify the results of the classification. The results of this comprehensive comparison show that a back propagation network trained using the principal components of appropriate, carefully se?lected spectral partitions can obtain the best results. A perfect result with 100% classification accuracy can be achieved using the intensive spectral partitions ranging of 357-367 nm.
Influence of Ambient Gas on Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy of
Determination of Iron in Water Solution by Time-Resolved Femtosecond Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy
Ultrasonic Nebulizer Assisted LIBS: a Promising Metal Elements Detection Method for Aqueous Sample Analysis